- Garlic belongs to the genus Allium and family Liliaceae and is grown in tropical and subtropical countries.
- Studies have revealed that garlic is a rich source of essential nutrients and beneficial phytochemicals that can be incorporated in animal feed to enhance gut activity and promote growth in livestock and poultry.
- essential oils have been examined as a feed additive to manipulate rumen function for controlling enteric methane emission and improving feed conversion efficiency.
- Garlic has several medicinal properties, but its anti-microbial activity against different pathogenic microbes is perhaps the most widely studied scientifically.
- The antibiotic properties of garlic are a direct result of allicin produced from raw and crushed garlic, which is destroyed by cooking or boiling .
- The cooked garlic has no antibiotic value although it still retains other benefits.
- Allicin is a natural anti-microbial agent effective against several bacteria (Bacillus, Escherichia, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus), fungi, yeasts, small insects and parasites.
- In vitro screening experiments have shown sensitivity of some important bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to the presence of fresh garlic extracts.
Mechanism of action:
- The main anti-microbial effect of allicin is due to its oxidative interaction with important thiol-containing enzymes.
- Allicin interferes with the formation of phospholipid bilayer of cell wall, synthesis of cell membrane and also RNA synthesis in bacteria.
- Hence bacteria cannot grow in the presence of allicin and produces bactericidal effect .
Garlic as a prebiotic:
- In addition to broad spectrum anti-microbial activity, garlic also acts as a prebiotic: a nutrient which is not digested in the gut but acts as a stimulator for the beneficial gut microbes leading to improved microbial eco-system.
Immune stimulatory action of garlic:
enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils by mechanisms including:
- modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation.
- garlic has direct stimulatory effects on immune cell functions the supplementation of garlic extract to a culture increased the production of IL-2, IL-12, INF-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in stimulated splenocytes.
- Oxidative stress is a potential factor coupled with the immune response itself. Thus, the antioxidative properties of garlic might have resulted to the improved functioning of the immune cells by protecting them from oxidative stress.
- the stimulatory effects of garlic on humoral immune response maybe because of the improved immune cell functions that is cytokine production and / or antigen presenting cells phagocytic capacity.
Anticoccidial action of garlic:
- Allicin has antiparasitic activity and stimulates the immunity by enhancing profiline antibody response which directly kills the sporozoites.
- Garlic has been known for increased production of white blood cells, antibodies and enhanced phagocytosis of infected organisms.
- These properties are probably responsible for the coccidiostatic effect of Garlic.
Echinacea purpurea extract
- Echinacea has been used traditionally to support healthy immune system functions, and it’s a great herb for your animal.
- A potential feed and water additive in poultry production.
- Feed additives with performance and health stimulating effects are widely used in animal production.
Immune stimulatory action of Echinacea
stimulate macrophages and other cells of innate immunity causing them to become activated and release cytokines.
increase phagocytic activity and the uptake of foreign particles .
Action of Echinacea on immune cells:
- Release of cytokines as tumor necrosis factor , IL, INF which induce resistance against wide rang of viruses.
- Release of nitrous oxide which destroy the infectious agents as salmonella.
2.natural killer cells:
- which kill target cells specially virus infected cell and tumer cells.
3.polymorph nuclear leucocytes:
which its granules contain powerful bactericidal and antibiotic enzymes.
- basophils , eosinophils and mast cells:
contain secretory granules and are involved in the inflammatory response
Minerals are essential constituents of skeletal structures such as bones and teeth.
- Minerals are essential constituents of skeletal structures such as bones and teeth.
- Minerals play a key role in the maintenance of osmotic pressure, and thus regulate the exchange of water and solutes within the animal body.
- Minerals serve as structural constituents of soft tissues.
- Minerals are essential for the transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction.
- Minerals play a vital role in the acid-base equilibrium of the body, and thus regulate the pH of the blood and other body fluids.
- Minerals serve as essential components of many enzymes, vitamins, hormones, and respiratory pigments, or as cofactors in metabolism, catalysts and enzyme activators.
- Essential macro-mineral, in animals, 65% of the total Magnesium is located in the skeleton, bound to calcium and phosphorus, and necessary for bone growth and stability.
- The remaining Magnesium is found on its ionized form Mg2+, mainly inside the cells. Thus, it participates in the maintenance of cellular physico-chemical constants, and is cofactor of more than 300 enzymes involved in the energetic and antioxidant metabolisms.
- It is also necessary for the transmission of the nerve flow
and muscular contraction .
Magnesium is an essential component of bone, cartilage and the crustacean exoskeleton.
- Magnesium is an essential component of bone, cartilage and the crustacean exoskeleton.
- Magnesium is an activator of several key enzyme systems, including kinases enzymes that catalyse the transfer of the terminal phosphate of ATP to sugar or other acceptors), mutases (transphosphorylation reactions), muscle ATPases, and the enzymes cholinesterase, alkaline phosphatase, enolase, isocitric dehydrogenase, arginase (magnesium is a component of the arginase molecule), deoxyribonuclease, and glutaminase.
- Through its role in enzyme activation, magnesium (like calcium) stimulates muscle and nerve irritability (contraction), is involved in the regulation of intracellular acid-base balance, and plays an important role in carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism.
- Zinc is an essential nutrient for animals, functioning largely or entirely in enzyme systems and being involved in protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and many other biochemical reactions.
- A severe zinc deficiency causes numerous pathological changes, including skin parakeratosis, reduced or cessation of growth, general debility, lethargy, and increased susceptibility to infection.
- However, the mechanism and routes by which specific enzymatic changes are responsible for the serious pathological alterations caused by the deficiency have not been elucidated. Recovery of calves from a severe zinc deficiency is rapid and dramatic.
- Manganese (Mn) is an important trace mineral (required in very small quantities).
- It is involved in many aspects of both plant and animal life, primarily as an enzyme activator.
- One of the most common deficiency symptoms is reduced growth or abnormal growth and development (perosis in chickens).
- Manganese is involved in activating the enzymes responsible for the production of mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins which form the organic matrix of bone and cartilage.
- KI (potassium iodide) is a salt of stable (not radioactive) iodine that can help block radioactive iodine from being absorbed by the thyroid gland, thus protecting this gland from radiation injury.
- The thyroid gland is the part of the body that is most sensitive to radioactive iodine.
- Lysine is an essential amino acid used in poultry diets to help ensure balanced nutrition and flock performance.
- Lysine deficiency could reduce the body weight up to 40 to 45% because of lysine being used mainly for muscle protein production in broilers .
- The breast meat contains high levels of lysine,
and reduction of lysine in the diet has been reported to affect the breast meat accretion
- Met is a methyl and sulfur donor and an important factor for antibody response.
- alleviates the negative effects of heat stress.
- increases protein synthesis and decreases fat synthesis.
- improves the amino acid balance and consequently promotes growth performance by enhancing feed efficiency.
- Methionine improves the immune response through :
(protein synthesis and breakdown).
(derivatives of methionine).
- Dl-Met is also a precursor of important intermediates, such as metabolic pathway components and glutathione, which have antioxidant characteristics, and which also decrease oxidative damage caused by lipid peroxidation.
- Methionine deficiency in poultry can result in growth inhibition, cannibalism, and increased susceptibility to disease .